Volume 11, Issue 41 (11-2020)                   NCMBJ 2020, 11(41): 103-120 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Piri Gharaghie T, Beiranvand S, Doosti A, Ghadiri A H, Haji Mohammadi S. A review of the epidemiology and clinical signs of SARS-COV-2. NCMBJ. 2020; 11 (41) :103-120
URL: http://ncmbjpiau.ir/article-1-1343-en.html
Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
Abstract:   (1057 Views)
COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak to be a global public health emergency. Currently, the research on SARS-CoV-2 is in its primary stages. Based on current published evidence, this review systematically summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. It is hoped that this review will help the public to recognize and deal with SARS-CoV-2, and provide a reference for future studies.
Full-Text [PDF 520 kb]   (157 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Cellular and molecular
Received: 2021/01/24 | Accepted: 2020/11/30 | Published: 2020/11/30

References
1. V. M. Corman, J. Lienau, M. Witzenrath, [Coronaviruses as the cause of respiratory infections]. Internist (Berl) 60, 1136-1145 (2019).
2. Saeed Soleiman-Meigooni.Hospital Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoronavirusThe new England journal of medicine, august 2013 ,1 vol. 369 no. 5
3. A. R. Fehr, R. Channappanavar, S. Perlman, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: of a Pathogenic Human Coronavirus. Annu Rev Med 68, 387-399 (2017).
4. Zhou, P. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7 (2020).
5. World Health Organization. WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China Geneva 2020 [updated 9 January 2020 and 14 January 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/china/news/detail/09-01-2020-who-statement regarding-cluster-of pneumonia-cases-in-wuhan-china.
6. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemic update and risk assessment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus 28 January 2020 [cited 29 January 2020]. Available from: http://www.chinacdc.cn/yyrdgz/202001/P020200128523354919292.pdf
7. Iranian Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemic update and risk assessment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus 28 January 2020.www. Health.sbmu.ac.ir https://www.who.int/csr/sars/biosafety2003_04_25/en
8. Chen, Y., Liu, Q. & Guo, D. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J. Med. Virol. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25681 (2020).
9. Montani JP, Vliet VB. General physiology and pathophysiology of the renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin Vol. I: Springer; 2004: 3-29.
10. Hosseini khalili AR, Thompson J, Kehoe A, Hopkinson NS, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. BMC Pulm Med. 2008;8(1):15.
11. Crisan D, Carr J. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme: genotype and disease associations. J of Mol Diagn. 2000; 2(3): 105.
12. Lu, R. et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8 (2020).
13. Zhou, P. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7 (2020).
14. Zhu, N. et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017 (2020).
15. Xu, X. et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci. China Life Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5 (2020).
16. Hao Xu. High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa. International Journal of Oral Science (2020) 12:8 ; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x.
17. Hao Zhang et al. The digestive system is a potential route of 2019-nCov infection: a bioinformatics analysis based on single-cell transcriptomes. bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927806.
18. Jiahua He Huanyu Tao, Yumeng Yan, Sheng-You Huang∗, Yi Xiao. Molecular mechanism of evolution and human infection with the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.17.952903.
19. Huang, C., et al., SARS coronavirus nsp1 protein induces template-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs: viral mRNAs are resistant to nsp1-induced RNA cleavage. PLoS Pathog, 2011. 7(12): p. e1002433.
20. Tanaka, T., et al., Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 facilitates efficient propagation in cells through a specific translational shutoff of host mRNA. J Virol, 2012. 86(20): p. 11128-37.
21. Graham, R.L., et al., The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication. J Virol, 2005. 79(21): p. 13399-411.
22. Gadlage, M.J., R.L. Graham, and M.R. Denison, Murine coronaviruses encoding nsp2 at different genomic loci have altered replication, protein expression, and localization. J Virol, 2008. 82(23): p. 11964-9.
23. Lei, J., Y. Kusov, and R. Hilgenfeld, Nsp3 of coronaviruses: Structures and functions of a large multi-domain protein. Antiviral Res, 2018. 149: p. 58-74.
24. Serrano, P., et al., Nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nucleic acid-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3. J Virol, 2009. 83(24): p. 12998-3008.
25. Beachboard, D.C., J.M. Anderson-Daniels, and M.R. Denison, Mutations across murine hepatitis virus nsp4 alter virus fitness and membrane modifications. J Virol, 2015. 89(4): p. 2080-9.
26. Gadlage, M.J., et al., Murine hepatitis virus nonstructural protein 4 regulates virus-induced membrane modifications and replication complex function. J Virol, 2010. 84(1): p. 280-90.
27. Stobart, C.C., et al., Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity. J Virol, 2013. 87(23): p. 12611-28.
28. Zhu, X., et al., Porcine Deltacoronavirus nsp5 Antagonizes Type I Interferon Signaling by Cleaving STAT2. J Virol, 2017. 91(10).
29. Angelini, M.M., et al., Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural proteins 3, 4, and 6 induce double-membrane vesicles. mBio, 2013. 4(4).
30. Cottam, E.M., M.C. Whelband, and T. Wileman, Coronavirus NSP6 restricts autophagosome expansion. Autophagy, 2014. 10(8): p. 1426-41.
31. Kirchdoerfer, R.N. and A.B. Ward, Structure of the SARS-CoV nsp12 polymerase bound to nsp7 and nsp8 co-factors. Nat Commun, 2019. 10(1): p. 2342.
32. Zhai, Y., et al., Insights into SARS-CoV transcription and replication from the structure of the nsp7-nsp8 hexadecamer. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 2005. 12(11): p. 980-6.
33. te Velthuis, A.J., S.H. van den Worm, and E.J. Snijder, The SARS-coronavirus nsp7+nsp8 complex is a unique multimeric RNA polymerase capable of both de novo initiation and primer extension. Nucleic Acids Res, 2012. 40(4): p. 1737-47.
34. Egloff, M.P., et al., The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replicative protein nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding subunit unique in the RNA virus world. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004. 101(11): p. 3792-6.
35. Zeng, Z., et al., Dimerization of Coronavirus nsp9 with Diverse Modes Enhances Its Nucleic Acid Binding Affinity. J Virol, 2018. 92(17).
36. Bouvet, M., et al., Coronavirus Nsp10, a critical co-factor for activation of multiple replicative enzymes. J Biol Chem, 2014. 289(37): p. 25783-96.
37. Ma, Y., et al., Structural basis and functional analysis of the SARS coronavirus nsp14-nsp10 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015. 112(30): p. 9436-41.
38. Fang, S.G., et al., Proteolytic processing of polyproteins 1a and 1ab between non-structural proteins 10 and 11/12 of Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is dispensable for viral replication in cultured cells. Virology, 2008. 379(2): p. 175-80.
39. Ahn, D.G., et al., Biochemical characterization of a recombinant SARS coronavirus nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase capable of copying viral RNA templates. Arch Virol, 2012. 157(11): p. 2095-104.
40. te Velthuis, A.J., et al., The RNA polymerase activity of SARS-coronavirus nsp12 is primer dependent. Nucleic Acids Res, 2010. 38(1): p. 203-14.
41. Adedeji, A.O. and H. Lazarus, Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase. mSphere, 2016. 1(5).
42. Eckerle, L.D., et al., Infidelity of SARS-CoV Nsp14-exonuclease mutant virus replication is revealed by complete genome sequencing. PLoS Pathog, 2010. 6(5): p. e1000896.
43. Jia, Z., et al., Delicate structural coordination of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus Nsp13 upon ATP hydrolysis. Nucleic Acids Res, 2019. 47(12): p. 6538-6550.
44. Bouvet, M., et al., Viral Disease Research & Therapeutic Development RNA 3'-end mismatch excision by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp10/nsp14 exoribonuclease complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012. 109(24): p. 9372-7.
45. Minskaia, E., et al., Discovery of an RNA virus 3'->5' exoribonuclease that is critically involved in coronavirus RNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006. 103(13): p. 5108-13.
46. Bhardwaj, K., et al., RNA recognition and cleavage by the SARS coronavirus endoribonuclease. J Mol Biol, 2006. 361(2): p. 243-56.
47. Zhang, L., et al., Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Endoribonuclease Nsp15 Encoded by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. J Virol, 2018. 92(22).
48. Chen, Y., et al., Biochemical and structural insights into the mechanisms of SARS coronavirus RNA ribose 2'-O-methylation by nsp16/nsp10 protein complex. PLoS Pathog, 2011. 7(10): p. e1002294.
49. Decroly, E., et al., Crystal structure and functional analysis of the SARS-coronavirus RNA cap 2'-O-methyltransferase nsp10/nsp16 complex. PLoS Pathog, 2011. 7(5): p. e1002059.
50. Shi, P., et al., PEDV nsp16 negatively regulates innate immunity to promote viral proliferation. Virus Res.
51. Wong, D. W., Oudit, G. Y., Reich, H., Kassiri, Z., Zhou, J., Liu, Q. C., Scholey, J. W. (2007). Loss of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (Ace2 accelerates diabetic kidney injury. The American Journal of Pathology, 171(2), 438-451.
52. Zhang, H., Penninger, J. M., Li, Y., Zhong, N., & Slutsky, A. S. (2020). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target. Intensive Care Medicine, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05985-9
53. Fehr A.R., Perlman S. (2015) Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. In: Maier H., Bickerton E., Britton P. (eds) Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1282. Humana Press, New York, NY.
54. Cai, G., Cui, X., Zhu, X., & Zhou, J. (2020). A Hint on the COVID-19 Risk: Population Disparities in Gene Expression of Three Receptors of SARS-CoV, Preprints, DOI: doi: 10.20944/preprints202002. 0408.v1.
55. Zheng, Y. Y., Ma, Y. T., Zhang, J. Y., & Xie, X., (2020), COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0360-5.
56. Wang, J., Luo, Q., Chen, R., Chen, T., Li, J., (2020), Susceptibility Analysis of COVID-19 in Smokers Based on ACE2. Preprints, DOI:10.20944/preprints202003. 0078.v1
57. Grayson Wick. Coronavirus 2020, What is really happening and how to prevent it. updated February 12 th , 2020.
58. Wenzhong Liu. COVID-19 Disease: ORF8 and surfsce glycoprotein inhibit Heme Metabolism by binding to Porphyrin. Scholl of Life Science, Yibin University 644000. liuwz@suse.edu.cn.
59. Diao, K., Han, P., Pang, T., Li, Y. & Yang, Z. HRCT Imaging Features in Representative Imported Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia. Precision Clinical Medicine (2020).
60. Chang, D. et al. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus infections involving 13 patients outside Wuhan, China. JAMA (2020).
61. To Sing Fung and Ding Xiang Liu. Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction. Annual Review of Microbiology. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 2019. 73:529–57.
62. Masters PS. 2006. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 66:193–292.
63. LuoH,ChenQ,Chen J,Chen K, Shen X, JiangH. 2005. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS coronavirus has a high binding affinity to the human cellular heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1.FEBS Lett.579(12):2623–28.
64. Kristian G. Andersen1,2 ✉,.The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat ure Medicine. www.nature.com/naturemedicine. 17 MARCH 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9
65. Zhou, P. et al. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7 (2020)
66. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223):497- 506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
67. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223):507-513. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
68. Fang F, Luo X. Facing a major outbreak of new coronavirus infections in 2019: thoughts of pediatricians [J]. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics. 2020; 58(2):81-85. doi: 10.3760/ cma.j.issn.0578-1310. 2020.02.001.
69. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, MacGregor K, Kanagarajah S, Patel D, Schlagenhauf P. Going global - Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020; 33:101578.
70. Khan S, Ali A, Siddique R, Nabi G. Novel coronavirus is putting the whole world on alert. J Hosp Infect. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.019

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | New Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb